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    Tong Research Paper

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    virulentor
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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by virulentor on Sun May 30, 2010 6:24 pm

    However, Joule's interest diverted from the narrow financial question to that of how much work could be extracted from a given source, leading him to speculate about the convertibility of energy. In 1843 he published results of experiments showing that the heating effect he had quantified in 1841 was due to generation of heat in the conductor and not its transfer from another part of the equipment.[8] This was a direct challenge to the caloric theory which held that heat could neither be created nor destroyed. Caloric theory had dominated thinking in the science of heat since it was introduced by Antoine Lavoisier in 1783. Lavoisier's prestige and the practical success of Sadi Carnot's caloric theory of the heat engine since 1824 ensured that the young Joule, working outside either academia or the engineering profession, had a difficult road ahead. Supporters of the caloric theory readily pointed to the symmetry of the Peltier-Seebeck effect to claim that heat and current were convertible, at least approximately, by a reversible process.[3]


    Joule wrote in his 1845 paper:

    ... the mechanical power exerted in turning a magneto-electric machine is converted into the heat evolved by the passage of the currents of induction through its coils; and, on the other hand, that the motive power of the electro-magnetic engine is obtained at the expense of the heat due to the chemical reactions of the battery by which it is worked.[9]

    Joule here adopts the language of vis viva (energy), possibly because Hodgkinson had read a review of Ewart's On the measure of moving force to the Literary and Philosophical Society in April 1844.
    Further experiments and measurements by Joule led him to estimate the mechanical equivalent of heat as 838 ftlbf of work to raise the temperature of a pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit.[10] He announced his results at a meeting of the chemical section of the British Association for the Advancement of Science in Cork in 1843 and was met by silence.
    Joule was undaunted and started to seek a purely mechanical demonstration of the conversion of work into heat. By forcing water through a perforated cylinder, he was able to measure the slight viscous heating of the fluid. He obtained a mechanical equivalent of 770 ftlbf/Btu (4.14 J/cal). The fact that the values obtained both by electrical and purely mechanical means were in agreement to at least one order of magnitude was, to Joule, compelling evidence of the reality of the convertibility of work into heat.
    Joule now tried a third route. He measured the heat generated against the work done in compressing a gas. He obtained a mechanical equivalent of 823 ftlbf/Btu (4.43 J/cal).[11]
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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by Ahmed on Sun May 30, 2010 6:24 pm

    I love how you plagiarized the word "and" in this sentence lol:

    "James Prescott Joule was an English physicist and brewer."

    But anyways, you didn't say when he was born and typical stuff like that. And show me how you could tie this paragraph with your other paragraphs from yesterday.

    And I know about the 4.1 thing...I have that in the results...that was the specific heat of water.


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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by virulentor on Sun May 30, 2010 6:53 pm

    idid say when he was born...

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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by virulentor on Sun May 30, 2010 6:54 pm

    well, i did it separately, i thought u are smart in english and can possibly add a few transitions to connect them 0-0. stupid ahhhehemd

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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by virulentor on Sun May 30, 2010 6:55 pm

    u don't have to involve everything i wrote in the introduction, u can edit them ,and delete the part that u don't want.
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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by Ahmed on Sun May 30, 2010 6:59 pm

    Hey dumb Tong...don't make fun of my name noob. Tong Tong Tong:



    Hilarious

    Anyways:

    No! I am only responsible for the the conclusion and experiment. You must do the intro. And once you connect it Ill proof read it for any errors. But you need to connect them. And yes I'm good at English...99% baby Cool


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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by The Banker on Sun May 30, 2010 8:37 pm

    what a bunch of girls Hilarious

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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by virulentor on Sun May 30, 2010 9:52 pm

    what the hell, even thought i connected that 2 paragraph, how am i gonna connected to ur body paragraph, u need to do it anyway
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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by Ahmed on Sun May 30, 2010 9:53 pm

    I didn't say mines you fool! I said yours from today and yours from yesterday...connect those.


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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by virulentor on Sun May 30, 2010 11:44 pm

    i know, but introduction needs to connect with introduction too
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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by Ahmed on Sun May 30, 2010 11:59 pm

    What? That didn't make sense. But I will edit the conclusion and Ill try to connect it with your intro then Ill post it here tomorrow.


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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by virulentor on Mon May 31, 2010 2:51 pm

    Chemistry may sound deep and profound to certain people, but signs of chemistry actually show up in every aspects of our daily life: cooking, cleaning, dressing, entertaining. It is also central to most of science and technology, blending at one extreme into physics, mathematics, engineering and even the earth and life sciences. Chemists are employed in industries which provide us food, ,medicines, energy, consumer goods, in regulatory bodies that protect our health and environment and in research institutions that provide new materials and techniques for the future. In other words, chemistry is an essential part of modern life. The knowledge of chemistry covers an enormously large area, having myriads amounts of branches. This research paper will focus on James Prescott Joule 's experiment on one of the most important branch of chemistry, heat.---

    The mysterious energy, heat, in moving objects was first recognized by Sir Isaac Newton in the late seventeenth century. What made an airplane or train moving? Certainly, it must be the coal or gasoline that provides energy to the engine to make them move. But what was this particular heat produced by coal and gasoline that could move heavy objects? Was heat a material, a motion of some kind, or something entirely different? These questions attracted many scientists to study heat. But not until the end of eighteenth century did people made some important progress on the nature of heat.

    The key event that leads people to understand how heat works was an observation made my a scientist, Benjamin Thompson. While supervising the boring of a cannon at Munich in 1798, Benjamin Thompson was amazed by the shockingly large amount of heat produced by the boring instrument. When the boring instrument was placed in cold water to cool off, the water soon boiled. Benjamin Thompson was surprised to see that the water can actually boil with a fire being put on. After studying and analyzing this phenomenon, Benjamin Thompson concluded that the motion of the boring instrument produced some kind of motion inside the metal of the cannon which manifested itself as heat. Thus accoring to Benjamin Thompson, heat was not a material substance but a motion of some kind. However, the knowledge of heat was not complete, some questions still remained unsolved. One question was whether energy can be created or destroyed. One of the famous scientist who worked on this question was James Prescott Joule.

    James Prescott Joule was an English physicist and brewer. James Prescott Joule's main contributions to the Chemistry field were his study of the nature of heat, and discovery of its relationship to mechanical work. He was also famous for his accuracy in experiments. James Prescott Joule was born into a brewer's family at Salford, England on Christmas Eve of the year 1818. Joule's work experience at brewing and his access practical technology explain why his experiment results were extremely accurate. Although a delicate child, James Prescott Joule did not go to regular schools, but received education from his mother's half sister. Joule's interest in Science emerged after his father sent him to John Dalton, who was one of the most renown chemist, meterologist and physicist of all time. Joule received knowledges on algebra, arithmetic, geometry, and finally, chemistry from Dalton's own master piece "New System of Chemical Philosophy." Dalton's teaching on the constitution of mixed gases, and on the behavior of vapors and gases under heat had greatly influenced Joule, who then verified the law of conversion of energy in his study of the transfer of mechanical energy into heat energy and determined the numerical relation between heat and mechanical energy.

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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by virulentor on Mon May 31, 2010 2:52 pm

    2 pages, and i prove read it
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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by Ahmed on Mon May 31, 2010 2:56 pm

    Should I give you the conclusion to see if you want to make any additions? We need 5 pages BTW


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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by virulentor on Mon May 31, 2010 4:46 pm

    just give me what u have
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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by Ahmed on Mon May 31, 2010 6:07 pm

    James Joules believed that energy does not disappear. Rather it is conserved and it goes to surrounding objects in the form of heat. The independent variable in Joules experiment was the stirring of the water with energy. The dependent variable was the waters temperature. James Joules, along with assistants, built an apparatus to test his hypothesis. He built the apparatus out of four revolving blades that was surrounded by stationary vanes that are connected to a stick that is connected to the bottom of a spinning drum. The revolving blades and stationary vanes are inside a container of metal framework, which is covered by a copper jacket. A rope is tied around the spinning drum. The other end of the rope goes though a pulley and is tied to a weight. There is also a slit to put a thermometer though so the waters temperature can be measured. Finally a ruler is used to measure how low the weight dropped when it was lowered.

    Joules believed that energy is always conserved. To prove this theory, he lowered the weight down by a measured amount. Then he multiplied the acceleration due to gravity with the height that the weight that got dropped is from the ground with the mass of the weight. This gave him the amount of potential energy that got converted to kinetic energy after the weight was lowered. Joules first measured the temperature of the water using a very precise thermometer. Joules lowered the weight, which caused the rope to be pulled on and therefore the spinning drum was spun. This caused the system of paddles to spin the water. Joules then measured the temperature of the water after the paddles stopped turning. The amount of temperature degrees that the water was raised by was approximately the same as the amount of kinetic energy that the lowered weight used on the water. This confirmed Joules hypothesis about energy being conserved. This allowed Joule to come up with the equation: CΔT=mgh. Henceforth, Joule was able to determine the specific heat (C) of water too. He was to estimate a mechanical equivalent of 4.41 J/cal. In 1845, Joule read his paper that contained the paddle-wheel experiment, On the mechanical equivalent of heat to the British Association meeting in Cambridge. In 1850, Joule published a refined measurement of 4.159 J/cal. Today the accepted specific heat of water is 4.186 J/cal.


    This is before she edited it.


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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by virulentor on Mon May 31, 2010 6:31 pm

    .........................i read this on thursday. that's all u have??/ that's like only 1 page.

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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by virulentor on Mon May 31, 2010 6:31 pm

    what makes u think that the body paragraph should be shorter than the intro...
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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by Ahmed on Mon May 31, 2010 6:33 pm

    You see Tong...I didn't edit it yet...I'm just showing you what I "have". Ill add more stuff though.


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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by Justice on Tue Jun 01, 2010 8:37 pm

    Here is something

    It was the ENGlish scientist James P Joule who probably more than anyone else was responsible for our belief that heat is a form of energy. He created the device shown in figure ....The masses are raised by turning the drum at the top. The container was filled wit water. As the mass fall they give p.e to the H2O whihc turns into average K.E


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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by virulentor on Tue Jun 01, 2010 8:44 pm

    steve wants me to ask u for the answer for 10.14
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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by Justice on Tue Jun 01, 2010 9:34 pm

    You can alway ask me =P


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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by Ahmed on Tue Jun 01, 2010 10:15 pm

    Lmao why are you telling people I have the answer book Tong..noob. I'm not the only one that has it. And yeah ask lev Hilarious


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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by virulentor on Tue Jun 01, 2010 10:17 pm

    i didn't he asked me to ask u for it.. he knew u have the book. and i guess he didn't know lev has it too
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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by Ahmed on Wed Jun 02, 2010 5:49 pm

    Here it is Tong:

    In 1798 Benjamin Thompson, an Englishman who spent his early years in pre-revolutionary America, was minister for war and police in the German state of Bavaria. One of his jobs was to oversee the boring of cannons in the state arsenal. Thompson was struck by the enormous, and seemingly inexhaustible, amount of heat generated in this process. He simply could not understand where all this heat was coming from. According to Lavoisier's calorific theory, the heat must flow into the cannon from its immediate surroundings, which should, therefore, become colder. The flow should also eventually cease when all of the available heat has been extracted. In fact, Thompson observed that the surroundings of the cannon got hotter, not colder, and that the heating process continued unabated as long as the boring machine was operating. Thompson postulated that some of the mechanical work done on the cannon by the boring machine was being converted into heat. At the time, this was quite a revolutionary concept, and most people were not ready to accept it. This is somewhat surprising, since by the end of the eighteenth century the conversion of heat into work, by steam engines, was quite commonplace.


    http://farside.ph.utexas.edu/teaching/sm1/lectures/node32.html

    Cite that for the cannon guy.

    And try to find other sources for your other info. We need at least 3.

    And how about this for the question:

    "Why is the temperature of the water increasing if no chemical reaction s occurring?"

    Lev give us your enlightened opinion too please Rolling Eyes


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