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    Tong Research Paper

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    Ahmed
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    Tong Research Paper

    Post by Ahmed on Mon May 24, 2010 6:10 pm

    Le Chateliers attention then turned to the question of how to apply the science of chemical processes. He suggested increasing the output of industrial ammonia production by using low heat and high pressure, as indicated by his principle of industrial applications of chemistry led him to perfect high temperatures required for welding and cutting metals Metallurgy.


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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by Ahmed on Mon May 24, 2010 6:22 pm

    I really love how there are virtually no books about the le chatelier in the library. Ast lwast I was able to hack through the Britanica site to get it for you tong...lazy noob. Tell me what you found in your library.


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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by virulentor on Mon May 24, 2010 10:40 pm

    since we can't find any specific experiments, i just want to know whether u want to focus on the production of ammonia or reducing the material waste and pollution. Btw if u want to do the production of ammonia, u need some back grounds such as why u want to create more ammonia. I already have back grounds information for pollution and material wastes in England at that time period.
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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by Justice on Tue May 25, 2010 7:38 pm

    Is Tong virulentor?


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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by The Banker on Tue May 25, 2010 7:41 pm

    Lev_93 wrote:Is Tong virulentor?
    Yes Wink

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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by virulentor on Wed May 26, 2010 3:16 pm

    Before I talk to you about my famous paddle wheel experiment, let me say something that is really quite important.
    I know that you all use metres and kilograms today. In my day, we used pounds and ounces for weighing and feet and inches for lengths. We also measured temperature using degrees Fahrenheit instead of Celsius. I am going to translate my measurements into your units to make it easier for you.

    The experiment that I am going to describe showed that heat is just another kind of energy like kinetic energy or potential energy.
    Let us begin by thinking about what scientists mean by energy and work. One kind of work is when we move a heavy object against gravity. That is, we lift it up through a height. This means that it now has a kind of energy that we call potential energy. When we let the object fall down, it can do work for us and changes the work back into moving or kinetic energy.
    But what happens when an object hits the ground? Surely, it has stopped moving? Does this mean that it has lost its energy? Has the energy somehow disappeared?

    The answer must be no, because it is an important rule that energy cannot be destroyed. So, what happens to the energy?
    [size=12]The answer is that it changes back into heat and the object heats up. Now, this is a nice idea, but can we prove it? Well, the problem is that the change in temperature is not very large.

    I decided that I would use these ideas and try to measure this change in temperature. Instead of just showing that the work became energy, and then heat, I wanted to measure exactly how much heat came out of a certain amount of work.

    The first step is to think of a way of doing work in a way that can be measured. The clue to this is in my earlier comments.
    [size=12]I decided that, if I dropped an object of known mass through a measured height, I could calculate the work it did and the (potential) energy it used or gave up. Then, I had to decide what I wanted it to do. It seemed to me that an easy thing to make it do would be to heat up some water and then I would know how much the energy of the water had changed.

    The problem was how to heat the water this way. Then I had an idea: if I used the energy to stir the water around, maybe that would heat it up. You can see that the heating must be very small because you would never try to heat up water this way.
    This is how I came upon the idea of a container with all those paddles in it to stir the water. I still had to make the falling object stir the water but that is quite easy. All I needed was some ropes and pulleys and the job was done.
    So far then, I had some falling objects that turn the paddles and this would stir the water and heat it up. I could measure the weight and the height and then I would know how much work had been done. This would tell me how much energy the water was gaining.

    I still had to measure the heat that had been given to the water.
    I did this by weighing the water before I put it into the apparatus. Then, I needed to measure the change in temperature. I knew that the temperature rise would be very small, in fact it turned out to be less than one degree, so I needed very accurate thermometers. I was lucky to have someone who could make me special thermometers so that I could measure the temperature to the required precision.
    You must remember that I had been doing experiments for many years, so I had lots of practice in reading instruments. This allowed me to measure my temperatures extremely accurately. Even so, it was difficult to get good results. I repeated the experiments many times and also improved it to increase the temperature rise. I let the weights fall, then quickly wound them up again and let them fall a second and a third time. This meant that they did more work.

    Because the temperature changes were so small, I also had to be careful to make sure that there were no other ways that the water could get warmer.
    This is why I did the experiments in a cellar, where the temperature was constant and I was away from other sources of heat. I even shielded myself so that the heat of my body didn't affect the results.
    Finally, I worked out how much heat was generated from a given amount of work. The important result was that it was always the same conversion factor, so now I had shown that heat was just another form of energy like kinetic energy and potential energy. I should remind you that I didn't do all this work by myself. I had lots of help in making the apparatus and in doing the experiments.
    Things Joule has ignored in this simple approach
    The heat capacity of the paddles and container. The experiment with the lead shot should allow us to estimate how much error is introduced by neglecting the thermal capacities of the containers. Also we have ignored the small amount of kinetic energy that the weights had as they reached the bottom.
    Remember that Joule performed his experiments using old-fashioned units. 1 pound (lb) falling through a height of 772 feet (ft.) in Manchester would heat 1lb of water through 1degree Fahrenheit.
    As well as using old-fashioned units Joule, along with his contemporaries, had different words for some quantities and properties. For example, the word energy was not used at that time. Even in the present day, we seem to be reluctant to use the unit of the Joule. It is true that it appears on all our food packets but we still persist in using the calorie, especially when we talk about diets. One calorie is the same as 4.2 Joules.
    [/size][/size]

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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by virulentor on Wed May 26, 2010 3:25 pm


  • A: revolving blades; B: stationary vanes; C: metal framework;
  • D: copper jacket; E: pulleys; F: weights
    G: drum; T: hole for thermometer.
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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by The Banker on Wed May 26, 2010 3:28 pm

    So... whats this?
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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by Ahmed on Thu May 27, 2010 5:57 pm

    It's James Joule Wheel-paddle experiment.


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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by virulentor on Fri May 28, 2010 10:36 pm

    Chemistry may sound deep and profound to certain people, but signs of chemistry actually show up in every aspects of our daily life: cooking, cleaning, dressing, entertaining. It is also central to most of science and technology, blending at one extreme into physics, mathematics, engineering and even the earth and life sciences. Chemists are employed in industries which provide us food, ,medicines, energy, consumer goods, in regulatory bodies that protect our health and environment and in research institutions that provide new materials and techniques for the future. In other words, chemistry is an essential part of modern life. The knowledge of chemistry covers an enormously large area, having myriads amounts of branches. This research way focus on James Prescott Joule 's experiment on one of the most important branch of chemistry, heat.

    The mysterious energy, heat, in moving objects was first recognized by Sir Isaac Newton in the late seventeenth century. What makes an airplane or train moving? Certainly, it is the coal or gasoline that provides energy to the engine to make them move. But what was this particulate heat produced by the coal that could move heavy objects? Was heat a material, a motion of some kind, or something entirely different? These questions attracted many scientists to study heat, but not until the end of eighteenth century did people made important progress on the nature of heat.

    The key event that lead people to understand how heat works was an observation made my a scientist, Benjamin Thompson. While supervising the boring of a cannon at Munich in 1798, Benjamin Thompson was amazed by the shockingly large amount of heat produced by the boring instrument. When the boring instrument was placed in cold water to cool off, the water soon boiled. Benjamin Thompson was surprised to see that the water can actually boil with a fire being put on. After studying and analyzing this phenomenon, Benjamin Thompson concluded that the motion of the boring instrument produced some kind of motion inside the metal of the cannon which manifested itself as heat. Thus accoring to Benjamin Thompson, heat was not a material substance but a motion of some kind.

    However, the knowledge of heat was not complete, some questions still remained unsolved. One question is whether energy can be created or destroyed.

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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by virulentor on Fri May 28, 2010 10:37 pm

    it's one and a half page, and see if it fits ur body paragraph
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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by Ahmed on Fri May 28, 2010 10:40 pm

    Tong you didn't really write anything about James Joule history. (His life)


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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by virulentor on Sat May 29, 2010 7:31 pm

    well, i suppose to write about the back ground of the experiment, but i'll find something about his life now, i'll post it here tonight. then u select whatever u need from what i post here
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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by Ahmed on Sat May 29, 2010 7:34 pm

    You also need to write about his life...it was the last point in the intro section


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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by Justice on Sat May 29, 2010 8:29 pm

    What is your thesis statement? This is a terrible paper. The first paragraph is gona be 100% crossed out it think.


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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by Ahmed on Sat May 29, 2010 8:34 pm

    That's what I told him. But Tong asked her and he said she said it's fine...our thesis is that James Joule was able to prove that heat is convertible.


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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by The Banker on Sat May 29, 2010 8:36 pm

    can i just say... my CW was more interesting than all of this =)
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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by Ahmed on Sat May 29, 2010 8:37 pm

    This is a Research Paper man, it's not meant to be fun lol


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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by The Banker on Sat May 29, 2010 8:39 pm

    learning about mr Fritz Harber is fun.. Razz
    ur not making it fun tho Hilarious
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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by Ahmed on Sat May 29, 2010 8:41 pm

    Yeah...these two girls already choose him Sad

    I really wanted to write about him...oh well.

    I tried writing about Le Chatelier but that went horrible Razz


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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by The Banker on Sat May 29, 2010 8:43 pm

    so what u writing it about then?
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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by Ahmed on Sat May 29, 2010 8:43 pm

    James Joule Smile


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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by The Banker on Sat May 29, 2010 8:45 pm

    having fun then?
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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by Ahmed on Sat May 29, 2010 8:48 pm

    I guess...want to read what I wrote?


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    Re: Tong Research Paper

    Post by The Banker on Sat May 29, 2010 8:54 pm

    yup..

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